Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
About us | Current Issue | Archives | Ahead of Print | Instructions | Submission | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
     
     
 


 

 
     
    Advanced search
 

 
 
     
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case Report
   Discussion
   Acknowledgments
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2591    
    Printed124    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded113    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 7    

Recommend this journal

 


 
Table of Contents   
CASE REPORT  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 210-212
Kingella kingae endocarditis: A rare case of mitral valve perforation


1 Division of Pediatric Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada
2 Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
3 Division of Pediatric Cardiology, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication8-Sep-2011
 

   Abstract 

Kingella kingae , a HACEK (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae) organism, is a common resident of the upper airway in children; it has been associated with endocarditis in children with pre-existing heart conditions. This case report describes K. kingae endocarditis leading to valvular damage in a previously healthy 18-month-old child. Our patient developed a K. kingae bacteremia that was later complicated by meningitis, septic embolic stroke, and endocarditis of the mitral valve, leading to perforation of the posterolateral leaflet. The patient was initially treated conservatively with cefotaxime but, subsequently, required a mitral valve repair with a pericardial patch and annuloplasty. This report draws attention to the need for clinicians to be aware of the potentially serious complications of K. kingae infection in young children. If K. kingae infection is suspected then therapy should be initiated promptly with a β-lactam, followed by early echocardiographic assessment. This case also highlights the lack of specific guidelines available for K. kingae endocarditis.

Keywords: Endocarditis, Kingella kingae, mitral regurgitation, pediatric

How to cite this article:
Holmes AA, Hung T, Human DG, Campbell AI. Kingella kingae endocarditis: A rare case of mitral valve perforation. Ann Pediatr Card 2011;4:210-2

How to cite this URL:
Holmes AA, Hung T, Human DG, Campbell AI. Kingella kingae endocarditis: A rare case of mitral valve perforation. Ann Pediatr Card [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Jun 17];4:210-2. Available from: http://www.annalspc.com/text.asp?2011/4/2/210/84664



   Introduction Top


Kingella kingae (K. kingae) is a β-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative coccobacillus. It is a member of the HACEK (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae) group of organisms and one study has suggested that up to 73% of children over 6 months of age carry the bacterium in their oropharynx at some point, with the carriage rate highest among those between 6 months and 4 years. [1]

Increasingly, K. kingae has been identified as the causative organism in a number of pediatric infections, including septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacteremia. [1] While K. kingae infections of the skeletal system have an excellent prognosis, K. kingae endocarditis is associated with serious complications, including valvular abscesses and septic embolization. [2] These complications are often seen in children with pre-existing heart conditions. In this communication, we describe the complicated case of a previously healthy 18-month-old Caucasian male child who presented with K. kingae bacteremia and, subsequently, developed meningitis, endocarditis, a septic embolus to the frontal lobe, and perforation of the posterolateral mitral valve leaflet.


   Case Report Top


An 18-month-old previously healthy male child presented to the emergency department (ED) with several days of flu-like symptoms. His birth and medical history were unremarkable. The patient was discharged home but was persistently febrile and had continuous vomiting, with decreased oral intake. He had no history of diarrhea. The patient returned to the ED where he was admitted to hospital with a provisional diagnosis of dehydration and possible meningitis.

On his admission, the patient was found to be febrile, pale, and tachycardic, with peripheral cyanosis and mild photophobia. His tachycardia persisted despite the administration of several boluses of normal saline; however, his perfusion was determined adequate. A new 2/6 systolic murmur was noted on auscultation. There was no hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory tests revealed the following: Hemoglobin of 9.0 g/dL, white cell count of 25 × 10 9 /L, platelets of 100 × 10 9 /L, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 77 mm/hr, and C-reactive protein level of 20 mg/L. Blood cultures were drawn and a lumbar puncture performed on the second day of admission revealed a white cell count of 690 cells/mL (87% neutrophils). The cultures were initially negative, so the patient was administered ceftriaxone. Over the subsequent three days, his tachycardia, pallor, and systolic murmur persisted but his neck stiffness resolved. On the third day, the blood culture grew K. kingae, which prompted, one week after his initial presentation, investigations into possible bacterial endocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mild mitral regurgitation (MR), with a small perforation in the posterolateral leaflet but no evidence of vegetations. The patient was commenced on a 6-week course of cefotaxime.

On day four of the course, he became increasingly irritable and a head computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 17-mm-long by 9-mm-wide wedge-shaped left frontal lobe infarct, likely due to a septic embolism. There was no appreciable neurological deficit. On day seven, the patient's irritability resolved and a head CT performed 6 weeks later showed a resolving cerebral infarct.

Two weeks after completion of his antibiotic regimen, the patient returned with increasing fatigue and diaphoresis during exertion. An echocardiogram revealed a 3-mm perforation of his posterolateral mitral valve leaflet with severe MR. No vegetations were seen on any valve and his submitral apparatus and chordae were intact. Due to progressive dyspnea, the patient was scheduled for surgical repair of his mitral valve.

In the operating room, a pre-operative transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) revealed a discrete 4-mm hole in the posterolateral leaflet of his mitral valve [Figure 1]. Normal left ventricular function was observed with a mildly dilated left atrium measuring 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm and a mitral valve annulus of 21 mm. Under cardiopulmonary bypass, the left atrium was entered using a trans-septal approach and the mitral valve was examined. A well-circumscribed 4-mm diameter defect in the medial component of the posterolateral leaflet was identified. The defect was repaired with a small patch of autologous pericardium. As the patient's annulus was slightly dilated, a suture annuloplasty was performed from the anteromedial to the posterolateral commissure. After weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, the TEE confirmed trivial mitral regurgitation [Figure 2]. The postoperative recovery was unremarkable.
Figure 1: (a) Preoperative trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TEE) showing mitral regurgitation through a4-mm hole in the posterolateral leaflet. (b) Preoperative TEE revealing a perforation in the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve

Click here to view
Figure 2: (a) Post-repair, Intra-operative Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram (TEE) showing minimal Mitral Regurgitation. (b) Post-repair, Intra-operative Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram (TEE) showing the newly intact posterior leaflet of the Mitral valve

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


K. kingae infection most commonly results in bacteremia and septic arthritis in children; meningitis and endocarditis are rarely observed. [1] From a review in 2004 and one subsequent report, 16 cases of K. kingae endocarditis have been reported. [3],[4] Of these, four were previously healthy, developmentally normal children. Two of the four children experienced mitral leaflet perforation.

In one report, 40-50% of K. kingae infections had concomitant mucosal lesions acting as the possible route of inoculation. [5] We observed no concomitant oral pathology in the patient in our study; however, he was likely still teething, thus, making the gingiva a potential entry point for the organism. This route of infection could explain the incidence rate pattern of K. kingae infection, which peaks in the 6- to 11-month-old population, with 60% of infections occurring before 24 months of age. [1] Furthermore, a recent study of 322 cases of K. kingae infection confirmed a seasonal pattern to invasive K. kingae disease with viral infections frequently detected concomitantly. [6] With respect to our patient, his initial presentation with flu-like symptoms may have represented a predisposing viral infection.

K. kingae has fastidious growth requirements. It may take 5 days or longer to be isolated and does not grow in MacConkey Agar. [7] It is also resistant to alcohol decolorization, making it falsely appear Gram-positive. [7] This lengthens the pre-diagnosis phase and, despite empirical treatment,  K.kingae Scientific Name Search  endocarditis is associated with a higher mortality rate than viridans streptococcal endocarditis. [7]

This case reflects how the current investigation and management strategy for invasive K. kingae disease can fail to prevent serious complications. Interestingly, a recent report has shown that early surgical removal of a leaflet vegetation can be effective in preventing complications of embolism and infarction. [4] In summation, if K. kingae infection is suspected, the patient should immediately be administered appropriate β-lactam as well as subjected to cardiac assessment.


   Acknowledgments Top


We thank Angie Kennedy for her kind and helpful input in producing this Case Report.

 
   References Top

1.Yagupsky P. Kingella kingae: From medical rarity to an emerging paediatric pathogen. Lancet 2004;4:358-67.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Yagupsky P, Peled N, Katz O. Kingella kingae: An emerging cause of invasive infection in young children. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:860-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Feder HM Jr, Roberts JC, Salazar JC, Leopold HB, Toro-Salazar O. HACEK endocarditis in infants and young children: Two cases and a literature review. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;22:557-62.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
4.Youssef D, Henaine R, Di Filippo S. Subtle bacterial endocarditis due to Kingella kingae in an infant: A case report. Cardiol Young 2010;20:448-50.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Yagupsky P, Dagan R. Population-based study of invasive Kingella kingae infection. Emerg Infect Dis 2000;6:85-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
6.Dubnov-Raz G, Ephros M, Garty BZ, Schlesinger Y, Maayan-Metzger A, Hasson J, et al. Invasive pediatric Kingella kingae infections: A nationwide collaborative study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010;29:639-43.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Brachlow A, Chatterjee A, Stamato T. Endocarditis due to Kingella kingae: A patient report. Clinc Pediatr Dis 2004;43:283-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Anthony A Holmes
Pediatric Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, BC Children's Hospital, Suite AB307, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4
Canada
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-2069.84664

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Pore forming activity of the potent RTX-toxin produced by pediatric pathogen Kingella kingae: Characterization and comparison to other RTX-family members
Iván Bárcena-Uribarri,Roland Benz,Mathias Winterhalter,Eleonora Zakharian,Nataliya Balashova
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 30 years of study ofKingella kingae:post tenebras,lux
Dimitri Ceroni,Victor Dubois-Ferrière,Abdessalam Cherkaoui,Léopold Lamah,Gesuele Renzi,Pierre Lascombes,Belaieff Wilson,Jacques Schrenzel
Future Microbiology. 2013; 8(2): 233
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Kingella kingae Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis
Ami Patel,Eliahu Bishburg,Sandhya Nagarakanti,Marc Cohen
Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. 2013; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Infective endocarditis and mitral valve perforation in an infant
Liu, J., Lu, B.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics. 2013; 15(1): 79-80
[Pubmed]
5 30 years of study of Kingella kingae: Post tenebras, lux
Ceroni, D., Dubois-Ferrière, V., Cherkaoui, A., Lamah, L., Renzi, G., Lascombes, P., Wilson, B., Schrenzel, J.
Future Microbiology. 2013; 8(2): 233-245
[Pubmed]
6 Multilocus sequence typing and rtxA toxin gene sequencing analysis of kingella kingae isolates demonstrates genetic diversity and international clones
Basmaci, R. and Yagupsky, P. and Ilharreborde, B. and Guyot, K. and Porat, N. and Chomton, M. and Thiberge, J.-M. and Mazda, K. and Bingen, E. and Bonacorsi, S. and Bidet, P.
PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(5)
[Pubmed]
7 Genome sequence of kingella kingae septic arthritis isolate PYKK081
Kaplan, J.B., Lo, C., Xie, G., Johnson, S.L., Chain, P.S.G., Donnelly, R., Kachlany, S.C., Balashova, N.V.
Journal of Bacteriology. 2012; 194(11): 3017
[Pubmed]



 

Top