| Abstract|| |
Coronary artery stenosis is a rare phenomenon in children. Coronary stent implantation is generally not considered a standard treatment option due to technical difficulties and potential complications in this group of patients. Nevertheless, several pediatric cases reporting successful implantation with acceptable short-term experiences have been described. The following case presents a successful stent implantation for left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis early after surgery for anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) at the age of 6 months. The excellent mid-term results and notably the procedure's potential as a long-term treatment in small children are highlighted. A 6-month-old infant underwent surgery for ALCAPA. Due to sudden postoperative deterioration, cardiac catheterization was performed. Coronary angiography revealed severe (90%) ostial LMCA stenosis. A PROMUS drug-eluting stent (Promus Element AL3.0 Χ 8 mm, Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts, USA) was implanted. The procedure was performed without complications. Antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel was initiated. Subsequently, cardiac function improved slowly. Cardiac catheterization 3 years 8 months after stent implantation showed no restenosis with a proximal LMCA diameter still at the 50 th percentile for age. Neither were signs of heart failure reported at the last follow-up at 7 years of age. Presupposing normal growth, the implanted stent would thus provide sufficient myocardial perfusion with a LMCA lumen at the 40 th percentile at the age of 16 years. In selected cases, coronary stent implantation may be an effective mid- to long-term treatment of coronary artery stenosis even in very young children.
Keywords: ALCAPA, bland-White-Garland syndrome, infant, myocardial revascularization, stent
|How to cite this article:|
Paech C, Dahnert I, Riede FT. Stent implantation of left main coronary artery stenosis in an infant: Effective long-term treatment?. Ann Pediatr Card 2015;8:147-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Paech C, Dahnert I, Riede FT. Stent implantation of left main coronary artery stenosis in an infant: Effective long-term treatment?. Ann Pediatr Card [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Aug 19];8:147-9. Available from: http://www.annalspc.com/text.asp?2015/8/2/147/157035
| Introduction|| |
Coronary artery stenosis is a rare phenomenon in children compared to the widespread incidence in adults. Reported underlying diseases in the pediatric population are postoperative coronary artery stenosis after surgery for anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), primary ostial stenosis (isolated or in combination with vascular disease like Williams-Beurensyndrome, Takayasu arteriitis, or Kawasaki disease), along with metabolic disorders as familial hyperlipidemia. , Coronary stent implantation in children is generally not considered a standard treatment option due to technical difficulties and potential complications. Nevertheless, several case reports and caseseries describe successful implantation with acceptable short-term experiences in children, mainly in the age between 3 and 8 years. The following case presents the potential of coronary artery stent implantation as a long-term remedy in young children by describing the treatment of a currently 8-year-old patient who received stent implantation for left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis at the age of 6 months.
| Clinical Summary|| |
A 6-month-old infant was referred to our center with severe congestive heart failure. Diagnostic work-up including cardiac catheterization showed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (ALCAPA, syn. Bland-White-Garland syndrome) with extreme dilation of the left ventricle (left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) 240 ml/m 2 ), severely reduced left ventricular ejection function (LVEF 10%) and pulmonary hypertension. Surgery was performed with reimplantation of the anomalous LMCA to the aortic root and patch reconstruction of the former pulmonary origin. The postoperative course was complicated by continuing impairment of left ventricular function. Following acute clinical deterioration with signs of congestive heart failure the infant underwent cardiac catheterization on the 29 th postoperative day. The procedure was performed under sedation. Selective angiography revealed severe stenosis of the proximal LMCA [Figure 1]a and b. Only small collaterals led from the right coronary artery to the left circumflex artery. A 0.014'' coronary guide wire A 0.014" coronary guide wire (Galeo ES, biotronik) was advanced into the left coronary artery via a 4F left coronary 1.5 modified supertorque catheter (Cordis, Miami, Florida). This was stabilized with a long 4F sheath (Check-Flo Performer® Introducer, Mullins Design, Cook Medical Inc, Bloomington, USA) placed in the distal ascending aorta. Balloon dilation (Maverick 2™ Bloomington, ×12 mm, Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts, USA) of the stenosis did not lead to a significant improvement. After an interdisciplinary discussion of the therapeutic options and in view of the patient's poor general condition the decision for stent implantation was made. Using the same guide wire and long sheath, a drug-eluting stent (Promus Element, 8mm, Boston Scientific, Natick Massachusetts, USA) was implanted in the LMCA. No complications occurred. Appropriate stent position and complete relief of the stenosis were confirmed by angiography [Figure 1]c and d. Fluoroscopy time and area dose product were 12.8 min. and 557se pr 2 . After the procedure, clopidogrel was added to acetylsalicylic acid for platelet inhibition.
|Figure 1: Showing coronary recanalization in a 6-month-old toddler with stent implantation for LMCA stenosis. (a and b) (RAO 30°/ LAO 60°) corresponding to sequence A and B, showing a 90% stenosis of the proximal LMCA (arrow).(c and d) (RAO 30°/LAO 60°) corresponding to sequence C and D, selective coronary angiography, showing stent (PROMUS, 3 mm × 8 mm) positioning in the LMCA stenosis (arrow). Loop C (online supplementary material) also shows a right lusoric artery.(E and F) (RAO 30°/ LAO 54°) corresponding to sequence E and F, selective coronary angiography, showing the last follow-up examination 3 8/12 years after initial stent implantation. There is no in-stent or restenosis and when compared to the initial angiography (see a and b), the LAD as well as LCX show acceptable growth over time (compare a and e). LMCA = Left main coronary artery, RAO = Right anterior oblique, LAO = Left anterio|
Click here to view
Technically successful LMCA stenting having been concluded, cardiac function improved slowly. Follow-up angiography 10 days after intervention showed unimpeded flow through the stent. Antiplatelet therapy was initiated immediately after the procedure, using a combination of acrylic salicylic acid and clopidogrel. The patient was discharged on day 32 after intervention. During follow-up, slow but steady improvement of functional status and cardiac function were observed. Cardiac catheterization 3 years 8 months after stent implantation showed no in-stent or coronary restenosis with a proximal LMCA diameter at the 50 th percentile for age [Figure 2]. Left ventricular size and function had normalized completely (LVEDVi 72ml/m 2 and LVEF 76%). Clopidogrel was discontinued and the patient was left with acetylsalicylic acid as single platelet inhibition after its effectiveness had been documented by platelet function testing. The patient is seen regularly by his pediatric cardiologist. During the last follow-up at 7 years of age, he was clinically well and had a normal exercise tolerance.
|Figure 2: Mean and prediction limits for 2 and 3 SDs for size of LMCA according to body surface area for children under 18 years age. (6) Asterisks mark the stented LMCA diameter of the presented patient at the follow-up catheterizations (first and second from the left) and the extrapolated diameter at the follow-up at the age of 16 years. SD = Standard deviation|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Coronary stent implantation in small children is a technically feasible yet complex procedure. The main risk in pediatric patients is restenosis and acute thrombotic stent occlusion. Another consideration of interventional treatment in this age group is, that the child might "outgrow" the stent  Reviewing literature, several reports document coronary stent implantation in pediatric patients. Yet, less than 10 cases of children below 15 months of age are reported. These particularly young patients seem to show a higher incidence of stent related complications in contrast to patients beyond the age of 3 years. , As stated by Bratincsák et al., a stent diameter of more than 2.5 mm seems to be associated with a significantly longer short-to mid-term survival free from reintervention. Uniformly, nearly all reported patients were treated, at least initially, with a combination of aspirin and clopidogrel. Despite the lack of data supporting this approach, we had chosen a drug-eluting stent hoping to reduce the risk of in-stent stenosis. Consequently, dual platelet inhibition was initiated and continued for 3.5 years. The presented case shows the potential of stent implantation to serve as a long-term solution in selected patients even if they are very young. This assumption is based on the fact that this particular patient revealed a stent diameter corresponding to the 50 th percentile of coronary diameter at the age of 4 years [Figure 2].  Consequently, presupposing steady growth, the patient will possibly reach adulthood without another coronary artery intervention and a still adequate coronary diameter at the 40 th percentile of the affected LMCA at the age of 16 years.
| Conclusion|| |
In selected cases, coronary stent implantation may be an effective long-term treatment of coronary artery stenosis, even in very young children.
| Acknowledgements|| |
Special thanks to Mrs Bettina Müller for linguistic support and Mrs Jacqueline Richter for overall support.
| References|| |
Bratincsák A, Salkini A, El-Said HG, Moore JW. Percutaneous stent implantation into coronary arteries in infants. Catheter Cardiovasc. Intervent. 2011; 79:303.
Viola N, Alghamdi AA, Al-Radi OO, Coles JG, Van Arsdell GS, Caldarone CA. Midterm outcomes of myocardial revascularization in children. J Thoracic Cardiovasc Surg 2010;139:333-8.
Chrysant GS, Balzer D, Taniuchi M. Left main stem coronary artery stenting in a 3-month-old child after anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery repair. Pediatr Cardiol 2005;26:734-6.
Tissot C, Cruz ED, Aggoun Y. Rescue left main coronary artery stenting for acute myocardial ischemia after coronary angiography in a 7-year-old girl with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2007;69:243.
El-Segaier M, Lundin A, Hochbergs P, Jögi P, Pesonen E. Late coronary complications after arterial switch operation and their treatment. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2010;76:1027-32.
Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Gerber MA, Gewitz MH, Tani LY, Burns JC, et al.
Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association; American Academy of Pediatrics. Diagnosis, treatment and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: A statement for health professionals from the committee on rheumatic fever, endocarditis and Kawasaki disease, council on cardiovascular disease in the young, American Heart Association. Circulation 2004;110:2747-71.
Department for Pediatric Cardiology, University of Leipzig - Heart Center, Strümpellstr. 39, Leipzig - 04289
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]