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Profile and risk factors for congenital heart defects: A study in a tertiary care hospital


1 Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU Aligarh, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Centre of Cardiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU Aligarh, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Shaad Abqari
Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-2069.189119

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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 216-221

 

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Introduction: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children representing a major global health burden. It is thus important to determine their prevalence and spectrum and identify risk factors associated with the development of heart defects. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics and Center of Cardiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, from February 2014 to August 2015. All patients referred with complaints or clinical examination suggestive of CHDs were further evaluated with echocardiography. On Echocardiography, patients having CHDs were included as cases and those having a normal echocardiographic study were included as controls. Healthy controls were also included. 400 cases and 400 controls were thus identified; preterms having patent ductus arteriosus and patent foramen ovale and those with acquired heart defects were excluded. Risk factors among cases and controls were further studied. Results: Acyanotic heart defects were 290 (72.50%) of the total heart defects, whereas the contribution of cyanotic heart defects was 110 (27.50%). Out of all CHDs, ventricular septal defect was the most common lesion with contribution of 152 (38%) cases, whereas among the cyanotic heart defects, Tetralogy of Fallot was the most common lesion (18% of total cases). Out of the total 400 cases, 261 were males (65.25%). On univariate analysis, paternal age (odds ratio, OR, 2.01), bad obstetric history (OR, 2.65), antenatal febrile illness (OR, 4.12), and advanced maternal age (OR, 3.28) were found to increase the risk of CHD whereas intake of multivitamin (OR, 3.02) was found to be protective. The risk factors were further analyzed with multivariate logistic regression analysis and all the above factors were found to be significantly associated. Conclusion: We noted that the profile of CHD in our population was similar to the published literature although many were missed during infancy and detected later in life. Several antenatal factors were found to be associated with the incidence of congenital heart disease emphasizing the need to prioritize antenatal care and counseling to pregnant mothers along with good maternal nutrition and folic acid supplementation.






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1 Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU Aligarh, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Centre of Cardiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU Aligarh, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Shaad Abqari
Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-2069.189119

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children representing a major global health burden. It is thus important to determine their prevalence and spectrum and identify risk factors associated with the development of heart defects. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics and Center of Cardiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, from February 2014 to August 2015. All patients referred with complaints or clinical examination suggestive of CHDs were further evaluated with echocardiography. On Echocardiography, patients having CHDs were included as cases and those having a normal echocardiographic study were included as controls. Healthy controls were also included. 400 cases and 400 controls were thus identified; preterms having patent ductus arteriosus and patent foramen ovale and those with acquired heart defects were excluded. Risk factors among cases and controls were further studied. Results: Acyanotic heart defects were 290 (72.50%) of the total heart defects, whereas the contribution of cyanotic heart defects was 110 (27.50%). Out of all CHDs, ventricular septal defect was the most common lesion with contribution of 152 (38%) cases, whereas among the cyanotic heart defects, Tetralogy of Fallot was the most common lesion (18% of total cases). Out of the total 400 cases, 261 were males (65.25%). On univariate analysis, paternal age (odds ratio, OR, 2.01), bad obstetric history (OR, 2.65), antenatal febrile illness (OR, 4.12), and advanced maternal age (OR, 3.28) were found to increase the risk of CHD whereas intake of multivitamin (OR, 3.02) was found to be protective. The risk factors were further analyzed with multivariate logistic regression analysis and all the above factors were found to be significantly associated. Conclusion: We noted that the profile of CHD in our population was similar to the published literature although many were missed during infancy and detected later in life. Several antenatal factors were found to be associated with the incidence of congenital heart disease emphasizing the need to prioritize antenatal care and counseling to pregnant mothers along with good maternal nutrition and folic acid supplementation.






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