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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pediatric cardiac surgery: A retrospective review of trends and outcomes in Scotland


1 Department of Cardiac Surgery, Royal Hospital for Children, Glasgow, UK
2 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Royal Hospital for Children, Glasgow, UK
3 Department of Medical Statistics, Trauma, Audit and Research Network, University of Manchester, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

Correspondence Address:
Maziar Khorsandi
Department of Cardiac Surgery and Transplantation, Golden Jubilee National Hospital, Glasgow
UK
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/apc.APC_88_17

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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-11

 

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Introduction : Around 3.2%–8.4% of patients receive venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support after pediatric cardiac surgery. The desired outcome is “bridgetorecovery” in most cases. There is no universally agreed protocol, and given the associated costs and complications rates, the decisions as of when and when not to institute VA ECMO are largely empirical. Methods : A retrospective review of the ECMO database at the Scottish Pediatric Cardiac Services (SPCS) was undertaken. Inclusion criterion encompassed all children (<16 years of age) who were supported with VA ECMO following cardiac surgery between January 2011 and October 2016. The timing of ECMO support was divided into three distinct phases: “endofcase” or intheatre ECMO for patients unable to effectively wean from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), ECMO for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (“ECPR”), and Intensive Care Unit ECMO for “failing maximal medial therapy” following cardiac surgery. The patients were analyzed to identify survival rates, adverse prognostic indicators, and complication rates. Results : We identified 66 patients who met the inclusion criterion. 30day survival rate was 45% and survival rate to hospital discharge was 44% (the difference represents one patient). On followup (median: 960 days, range: 42–2010 days), all survivors to hospital discharge were alive at review date. “Endofcase” ECMO showed a trend toward better survival of the three subcategories (“end of case,” ECPR, and ECMO for “failing maximal medical therapy” survival rates were 47%, 41%, and 37.5%, respectively, P = 0.807). The poorest survival rates were in the younger children (<6 months, P = 0.502), patients who had prolonged CPB (P = 0.314) and aortic crossclamp times (P = 0.146), and longer duration of ECMO (>10 days, P = 0.177). Conclusions : Allcomers VA ECMO following pediatric cardiac surgery had survival to discharge rate of 44%. Elective “endofcase” ECMO carries better survival rates and therefore ECMO instituted early maybe advantageous. Prolonged ECMO support has a direct correlation with mortality.






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1 Department of Cardiac Surgery, Royal Hospital for Children, Glasgow, UK
2 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Royal Hospital for Children, Glasgow, UK
3 Department of Medical Statistics, Trauma, Audit and Research Network, University of Manchester, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK

Correspondence Address:
Maziar Khorsandi
Department of Cardiac Surgery and Transplantation, Golden Jubilee National Hospital, Glasgow
UK
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/apc.APC_88_17

Rights and Permissions

Introduction : Around 3.2%–8.4% of patients receive venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support after pediatric cardiac surgery. The desired outcome is “bridgetorecovery” in most cases. There is no universally agreed protocol, and given the associated costs and complications rates, the decisions as of when and when not to institute VA ECMO are largely empirical. Methods : A retrospective review of the ECMO database at the Scottish Pediatric Cardiac Services (SPCS) was undertaken. Inclusion criterion encompassed all children (<16 years of age) who were supported with VA ECMO following cardiac surgery between January 2011 and October 2016. The timing of ECMO support was divided into three distinct phases: “endofcase” or intheatre ECMO for patients unable to effectively wean from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), ECMO for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (“ECPR”), and Intensive Care Unit ECMO for “failing maximal medial therapy” following cardiac surgery. The patients were analyzed to identify survival rates, adverse prognostic indicators, and complication rates. Results : We identified 66 patients who met the inclusion criterion. 30day survival rate was 45% and survival rate to hospital discharge was 44% (the difference represents one patient). On followup (median: 960 days, range: 42–2010 days), all survivors to hospital discharge were alive at review date. “Endofcase” ECMO showed a trend toward better survival of the three subcategories (“end of case,” ECPR, and ECMO for “failing maximal medical therapy” survival rates were 47%, 41%, and 37.5%, respectively, P = 0.807). The poorest survival rates were in the younger children (<6 months, P = 0.502), patients who had prolonged CPB (P = 0.314) and aortic crossclamp times (P = 0.146), and longer duration of ECMO (>10 days, P = 0.177). Conclusions : Allcomers VA ECMO following pediatric cardiac surgery had survival to discharge rate of 44%. Elective “endofcase” ECMO carries better survival rates and therefore ECMO instituted early maybe advantageous. Prolonged ECMO support has a direct correlation with mortality.






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