Abdulraouf M Z Jijeh1, Muna Ismail1, Aisha Al-Bahanta1, Ahmed Alomrani1, Omar Tamimi2
1 King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs; Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Background: Congenital aortic stenosis (AS) is a rare disease. Treatment options for newborns are challenging. Newborns may have higher reintervention rate and mortality.
Objectives: The study aimed to identify the factors predictive of reintervention following balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for AS during infancy.
Methods: Retrospectively, between 2001 and 2016, echocardiography (echo) and cardiac catheterization data for infants with AS were analyzed, including follow-ups and reinterventions. Percentage reduction was defined as the ratio between the drop of aortic valve (AV) peak gradient and the baseline peak gradient.
Results: Sixty infants were included and 48 were followed up. Sixteen (27%) patients were neonates. Peak-to-peak gradient at AV was 64 ± 27 mmHg, which was reduced to 27 ± 13 mmHg. Percentage reduction was 53% ±24%. Forty-nine (82%) patients had adequate results (residual AV gradient <35 mmHg). There was no significant aortic insufficiency (AI) before procedure, while 6 (10%) patients had increased AI immediately after BAV. Of 48 patients, 14 (29%) required an additional BAV. Of 48 patients, 8 (17%) required surgical interventions following BAV. Reintervention was associated more with small left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), high residual AV, and low percentage reduction. Mortality was 8.3%.
Conclusions: BAV in infancy has a reasonable success rate (82%) with high rate of reintervention. Patent ductus arteriosus-dependent neonates carried the highest risk of mortality. Small LVOT, high AV residual gradient, and low percentage reduction resulted in more reinterventions.
Dr. Abdulraouf M Z Jijeh
King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, P.O. Box 22490, Riyadh 11426
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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