Ashvin Krishna Nair, Maruti Haranal, Ibrahim Mukhtar Elkhatim, Jeswant Dillon, Chee Chin Hew, Sivakumar Sivalingam
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Institut Jantung Negara, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Background: Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is a variant of tetralogy of Fallot characterized by aneurysmal pulmonary arteries, which compresses the tracheobronchial tree, leading to respiratory symptoms. We report the mid-term outcomes of surgical correction of patients with APVS.
Subject and Methods: A total of 27 patients underwent surgery between 2001 and 2015, and they were followed up for a mean period of 6.4 ± 4.1 years. Out of the 27 patients, 14 (51.9%) were infants. The median age at repair was 9.8 months. Preoperative intubation was required in six patients (22.2%), and 11 patients (40.7%) had symptoms of respiratory distress. The pulmonary valve was replaced with a valved conduit in 15 patients (55.6%), monocusp valve in 6 patients (22.2%), and a transannular patch in 6 patients (22.2%). Reduction pulmonary arterioplasty was done in all patients.
Results: The overall 10-year survival was 82.1%. There was 81.1% overall freedom from re-intervention at 10 years. No statistically significant difference was found in 10-year survival (P = 0.464) and reoperation rates (P = 0.129) between valved conduit, monocusp, or transannular patch techniques. Older children had statistically significantly longer survival (P = 0.039) and freedom from re-intervention (P = 0.016) compared to infants. Patients without respiratory complications had 100% 10-year survival and 93.3% freedom from reoperation at 10 years compared to 55.6% and 60.1%, respectively, for patients with respiratory complications.
Conclusion: There has been improvement in surgical results for APVS over the years. However, it still remains a challenge to manage infants and patients with persistent respiratory problems.
Dr. Sivakumar Sivalingam
National Heart Institute, 145 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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