Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2018
Volume 11 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-117

Online since Thursday, January 18, 2018

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From the Editor's Desk: Congenital heart surgery in India – At the crossroads? Highly accessed article p. 1
Krishna Subramony Iyer
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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pediatric cardiac surgery: A retrospective review of trends and outcomes in Scotland p. 3
Maziar Khorsandi, Mark Davidson, Omar Bouamra, Andrew McLean, Kenneth MacArthur, Ida Torrance, Gillian Wylie, Ed Peng, Mark Danton
Introduction : Around 3.2%–8.4% of patients receive venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support after pediatric cardiac surgery. The desired outcome is “bridgetorecovery” in most cases. There is no universally agreed protocol, and given the associated costs and complications rates, the decisions as of when and when not to institute VA ECMO are largely empirical. Methods : A retrospective review of the ECMO database at the Scottish Pediatric Cardiac Services (SPCS) was undertaken. Inclusion criterion encompassed all children (<16 years of age) who were supported with VA ECMO following cardiac surgery between January 2011 and October 2016. The timing of ECMO support was divided into three distinct phases: “endofcase” or intheatre ECMO for patients unable to effectively wean from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), ECMO for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (“ECPR”), and Intensive Care Unit ECMO for “failing maximal medial therapy” following cardiac surgery. The patients were analyzed to identify survival rates, adverse prognostic indicators, and complication rates. Results : We identified 66 patients who met the inclusion criterion. 30day survival rate was 45% and survival rate to hospital discharge was 44% (the difference represents one patient). On followup (median: 960 days, range: 42–2010 days), all survivors to hospital discharge were alive at review date. “Endofcase” ECMO showed a trend toward better survival of the three subcategories (“end of case,” ECPR, and ECMO for “failing maximal medical therapy” survival rates were 47%, 41%, and 37.5%, respectively, P = 0.807). The poorest survival rates were in the younger children (<6 months, P = 0.502), patients who had prolonged CPB (P = 0.314) and aortic crossclamp times (P = 0.146), and longer duration of ECMO (>10 days, P = 0.177). Conclusions : Allcomers VA ECMO following pediatric cardiac surgery had survival to discharge rate of 44%. Elective “endofcase” ECMO carries better survival rates and therefore ECMO instituted early maybe advantageous. Prolonged ECMO support has a direct correlation with mortality.
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Comparison of skin dose measurement using nanoDot® dosimeter and machine readings of radiation dose during cardiac catheterization in children p. 12
Duraisamy Balaguru, Matthew Rodriguez, Stephanie Leon, Louis K Wagner, Charles W Beasley, Andrew Sultzer, Mohammed T Numan
Objectives : Direct measurement of skin dose of radiation for children using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technology using nanoDot® (Landauer, Glenwood, IL, USA). Background : Radiation dose is estimated as cumulative air kerma (AK) and dosearea product based on standards established for adult size patients. Body size of pediatric patients who undergo cardiac catheterization for congenital heart disease vary widely from newborn to adolescence. Direct, skindose measurement applying OSL technology may eliminate errors in the estimate. Materials and Methods : The nanoDot® (1 cm × 1 cm × flat plastic cassette) is applied to patient's skin using adhesive tape during cardiac catheterization and radiation skin doses were read within 24 hrs. nanoDot® values were compared to the currently available cumulative AK values estimated and displayed on fluoroscopy monitor. Results : A total of 12 children were studied, aged 4 months to 18 years (median 1.1 years) and weight range 5.3–86 kg (median 8.4 kg). nanoDot® readings ranged from 2.58 mGy to 424.8 mGy (median 84.1 mGy). Cumulative AK ranged from 16.2 mGy to 571.2 mGy (median 171.1 mGy). Linear correlation was noted between nanoDot® values and AK values (R2 = 0.88, R = 0.94). nanoDot® readings were approximately 65% of the estimated cumulative AK estimated using the International Electrotechnical Commission standards. Conclusions : Application of OSL technology using nanoDot® provides an alternative to directly measure fluoroscopic skin dose in children during cardiac catheterization. Our data show that the actual skin dose for children is approximately one-third lower than the AK estimated using international standards for adult size patients.
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Normal reference ranges for cardiac valve cross-sectional areas in preterm infants p. 17
Lulu Abushaban, Mariappa Thinakar Vel, Jebaraj Rathinasamy, Prem N Sharma
Objective : To establish normal reference ranges for cardiac valve crosssectional areas (CSAs) in preterm infants and their correlation with gestational age, body weight, and chronological age. Materials and Methods : In a prospective study, 268 preterm babies fulfilling the criteria for inclusion were examined. Echocardiograms were performed to measure aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid valve CSAs on 0–6 day (s) of life and at weekly intervals until they reached 36 weeks. Gestational age was divided into three groups, 24–27, 28–31, and 32–35 weeks, and body weight was divided into five groups, ≤999, 1000–1499, 1500–1999, 2000–2499, and ≥2500 g. Overall group differences were compared for each period of life: 0–6 days and 1–2, 3–4, and ≥5 weeks. Results : The mean gestational age was 29.8 (±2.38 standard deviation [SD]) weeks, ranging between 24 and 35 weeks, and the mean body weight was 1479 (±413 SD) g, ranging between 588 and 3380 g. All cardiac valve CSAs correlated well with body weight. A significant gradual increase was observed in all valve CSAs with body weight during each period of life. Overall, a progressive and significant increase in all valve CSAs was observed during the first 9 weeks of life. Conclusions : Cardiac valve CSAs were found to be significantly correlated with body weight. The study also provides reference data, which can be used as a normal reference tool for valve CSAs in preterm infants against gestational age, body weight, and chronological age.
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Evaluation of left ventricular function in obese children without hypertension by a tissue Doppler imaging study p. 28
Yazdan Ghandi, Mehrzad Sharifi, Danial Habibi, Fatemeh Dorreh, Mojtaba Hashemi
Background : The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Obese children without hypertension are becoming an important health challenge. Aims : Complications of obesity in adults are well established, but in obese children, cardiac dysfunction has not been reported clinically. Settings and Design : The present crosssectional study investigates subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction using echocardiographic modalities. Materials and Methods : Twentyfive youngsters with body mass index (BMI) >30 and 25 healthy children with BMI <25 were assigned into case and control group, respectively. In all participants, complete cardiovascular examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were fulfilled. Echocardiography surveys included standard, pulsed wave Doppler (PWD), and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Statistical Analysis Used : SPSS software, version 24. Results : The two groups were matched for age and sex. The resting heart rate and blood pressure were markedly higher in the obese group (P = 0.0001) though they were within the normal range in either category. Ejection fraction in the two groups was similar. Left ventricular (LV) mass (P = 0.0001), LV mass index (P = 0.029), left atrialtoaortic diameter ratio (P = 0.0001), and LV enddiastolic diameter (P = 0.008) were significantly greater in the case group, indicating cardiomegaly and subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Except for the aortic velocity, all PWD variables were considerably lower in the case group, suggesting subclinical diastolic dysfunction. All TDI parameters varied significantly between the two categories. There was a direct correlation between isovolumetric relaxation time and BMI. Conclusions : Obesity in children without hypertension is associated with subclinical systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction. We propose the evaluation of blood pressure as well as myocardial performance using PWD and TDI in all obese children without hypertension, regularly.
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Clinical presentation, management, and postnatal outcomes of fetal tachyarrhythmias: A 10-year single-center experience p. 34
Balaganesh Karmegeraj, Sushmita Namdeo, Abish Sudhakar, Vivek Krishnan, Radhamany Kunjukutty, Balu Vaidyanathan
Background : Limited information is available regarding the prevalence and outcomes of fetal tachyarrhythmias from the developing countries. Aims : This study aims to report referral patterns, management protocols, and pregnancy outcomes of fetuses with tachyarrhythmias reporting to a single center in South India. Methods : All fetuses with documented sustained fetal tachyarrhythmia during the study period (2008–2017) were included. Arrhythmia characterization and hemodynamic evaluation were done using fetal echocardiography. Patients were grouped into supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and atrial flutter (AF) groups. Patient characteristics, transplacental therapy (TPT), pregnancy, and postnatal outcomes were analyzed. Results : Total of 19 fetuses included; 11 had SVT and 8 AF. Mean gestational age at referral was higher for AF (32.5 ± 3.2 vs. 29.6 ± 3.3 weeks; P = 0.05). Hydrops fetalis was present 8 (42%) fetuses; 4 in each group. TPT was instituted in 18 fetuses; 12 (66.7%) received combination therapy; 4 (21%) received direct fetal therapy. Eighteen fetuses (91%) were born alive with one intrauterine death in a fetus with SVT and severe hydrops. Seven (87.5%) fetuses with hydrops survived. Twelve patients (66.7%) were delivered in sinus rhythm. Six babies (33.3%) had tachycardia at birth requiring anti-arrhythmic therapy. All patients survived the neonatal period. Duration of trans-placental therapy (3.8 + 3.3 vs. 7.3 + 3.4 weeks) was shorter in the AF group. Conclusions : Aggressive TPT using combination of drugs achieves excellent pregnancy and postnatal outcomes in fetuses with tachyarrhythmia. Early diagnosis and prompt referral before hemodynamic decompensation is critical for ensuring optimal outcomes.
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Exercise performance after univentricular palliation p. 40
Sachin Talwar, Manikala Vinod Kumar, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Vishwa Prakash Gupta, Shiv Kumary Choudhary, Balram Airan
Background : The optimal timing, need for primary/staged procedure in patients undergoing univentricular palliation, is debatable. Aims : We performed this study to assess the exercise performance of patients undergoing various forms of univentricular palliation. Setting and Design : This was a retrospective, prospective comparative study conducted at a multispecialty tertiary referral center. Patients and Methods : Between January 2012 and June 2015, 117 patients undergoing either bidirectional Glenn (BDG) (n = 43) or Fontan (total cavopulmonary connection [TCPC]) (n = 74) underwent exercise testing. Statistical Analysis : Comparisons between subgroups for continuous data were made with Student's ttest if normally distributed and Wilcoxon ranksum test otherwise. Tests between subgroups for qualitative data were made with Pearson's Chisquare test. Results : Patients who underwent BDG with open antegrade pulmonary blood flow (APBF) had higher saturations (oxygen saturation [SpO2]) compared to those without it (87.5 ± 5.0% vs. 81.1 ± 4.8%; P = 0.0001). However, we found no differences in exercise parameters of patients undergoing BDG with or without APBF. Extracardiac TCPC (n = 42) patients demonstrated better exercise capacity (15.0 ± 7.7 vs. 11.2 ± 6.2 min; P = 0.02) and increased SpO2 on exercise (87.0 ± 8.0% vs. 83.4 ± 7.6%; P ≤ 0.05) compared to lateral tunnel TCPC (n = 32). Fenestrated TCPC (n = 30) patients had higher exercise capacity reflected by higher metabolic equivalents (METs) consumption (6.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.2 ± 2.0 METs, P = 0.02), fewer pleural effusions (7.0 ± 3.2 vs. 9.2 ± 6.2 days, P ≤ 0.05), and lower hospital stay (9.5 ± 4.0 vs. 12.7 ± 7.7 days, P = 0.04) compared to nonfenestrated TCPC (n = 44) patients. Conclusions : We observed no differences in exercise parameters of patients undergoing BDG with or without APBF. Extracardiac TCPC patients had better exercise capacity but longer postoperative hospital stay and pleural effusions than patients with lateral tunnel Fontan. Fenestrated TCPC patients seemed to fare better than nonfenestrated ones. Patients undergoing TCPC had better exercise capacity than patients undergoing BDG alone.
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Impact of intensive care unit attending physician training background on outcomes in children undergoing heart operations p. 48
Priya Bhaskar, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Jeffrey M Gossett, Punkaj Gupta
Background : The existing training pathways to become a pediatric cardiac intensivist are very variable with physicians coming from varied training backgrounds of pediatric critical care, pediatric cardiology, neonatology, or pediatric anesthesia. Aim : To evaluate the impact of cardiac Intensive Care Unit (ICU) attending physician training background on outcomes in children undergoing heart operations. Setting and Design : Patients in the age group from 1 day to 18 years undergoing heart operation at a Pediatric Health Information System database participating hospital were included (2010–2015). Patients and Methods : Based on the training background of majority of attending physicians in an ICU, the participating ICUs were divided into three groups: critical care medicine (CCM), cardiology, and indeterminate. Statistical Analysis : Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the association of ICU physician training background with study outcomes. Results : A total of 54,935 patients from 42 ICUs were included. Of these, 31,815 patients (58%) were treated in the CCM group (26 ICUs), 19,340 patients (35%) were treated in the cardiology group (12 ICUs), and 3780 patients (7%) were treated in the indeterminate group (4 ICUs). In adjusted models, no specific group based on ICU attending physician training background was associated with lower mortality (CCM vs. cardiology, odds ratio: 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.48–1.18), or lower incidence of cardiac arrest, or prolonged hospital length of stay, or prolonged mechanical ventilation. Conclusions : This large observational study did not demonstrate any impact of ICU attending training background on outcomes in children undergoing heart operations.
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Prognostic value of troponin in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome between Stage I and II of palliation p. 56
Martin Christmann, Emanuela R Valsangiacomo Büchel, Hitendu Dave, Dietrich Klauwer, Anna Cavigelli-Brunner
Background : The period between stage I and II procedure for treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) bears high mortality and morbidity. Methods : We sought to analyze the prognostic value of Troponin T/I (Trop), a well-recognized marker for myocardial damage and heart failure, for predicting outcome in a retrospective analysis of 70 infants with HLHS at our institution between March 2001 and October 2014. Results : Stage I procedure consisted of Norwood I operation in 35 (50%) and Hybrid-approach in 22 (31%) patients. Palliative care was chosen for 13 (19%) patients. Trop values were collected from clinical charts and were analyzed in relation to the overall outcome. Trop was significantly higher after Norwood I operation in comparison to Hybrid-approach (median 7.1 g/l (0.7-20.9), vs 1.2 g/l (0.3-17.9), P < 0.001). Overall mortality of treated patients was 39% (22 patients). Survival was 54% (19 patients) after Norwood and 73% (16 patients) after Hybrid-approach. Independently from the procedure used, maximal Trop and initial lactate values were significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors, with median Trop of 9 g/l (0.6-18.8) vs. 3.4 g/l (0.4-20.9), P 0.007, and median lactate of 3.7 mmol/L (1.6-25) vs. 2.9 mmol/L (0.3-14.6), p 0.03. Reinterventions were required in 17 (30%) patients, 4 (11%) after Norwood and 13 (59%) after Hybrid procedure. No correlation was found between the need for reintervention and Trop levels in the interstage period. Conclusions : Patients with HLHS have significantly higher Trop levels after Norwood procedure than after Hybrid-approach. Maximal Trop values were related to mortality, but did not correlate with the need for reinterventions.
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Q fever endocarditis after right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit insertion: Case series and review of the literature p. 60
Sundos A Alhadhoud, Mariappa Thinakar Vel, Mustafa Al Qbandi
Q fever (QF) is rarely reported in children. Awareness of the disease and newer diagnostic modalities have resulted in increasing recognition of unusual manifestations. We present three cases of QF endocarditis after right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit insertion in children.
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Hemodynamic rounds: Can we mimic a temporary pulmonary artery band in catheterization laboratory in corrected transposition of great arteries with severe tricuspid regurgitation? p. 64
Avinash Anantharaj, Kothandam Sivakumar
Right ventricular (RV) geometry is altered by septal shift after pulmonary artery banding. This may reduce tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and improve ventricular function in patients with corrected transposition of great arteries and systemic right ventricle. However, banding is risky in sick patients with severe RV failure. There are no predictive models in clinical practice to test this septal shift hypothesis before a risky surgery. A transcatheter model to mimic a pulmonary artery band is presented in corrected transposition of great arteries with failing right ventricle and severe TR.
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Prevention and control of rheumatic heart disease: Overcoming core challenges in resource-poor environments p. 68
Scott Dougherty, Andrea Beaton, Bruno R Nascimento, Liesl J Zühlke, Maziar Khorsandi, Nigel Wilson
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) has long receded as a significant threat to public health in high-income countries. In low-resource settings, however, the specter of RHD remains unabated, as exemplified by recent data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study. There are many complex reasons for this ongoing global disparity, including inadequate data on disease burden, challenges in effective advocacy, ongoing poverty and inequality, and weak health systems, most of which predominantly affect developing nations. In this review, we discuss how each of these acts as a core challenge in RHD prevention and control. We then examine key lessons learnt from successful control programs in the past and highlight resources that have been developed to help create strong national RHD control programs.
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Dual pathology causing severe pulmonary hypertension following surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection: Successful outcome following serial transcatheter interventions p. 79
Shreepal Jain, Neeta S Bachani, Robin J Pinto, Bharat V Dalvi
Surgical repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) can be complicated by the development of pulmonary venous stenosis later on. In addition, the vertical vein, if left unligated, can remain patent and lead to hemodynamically significant left to right shunting. We report an infant who required transcatheter correction of both these problems after surgical repair of TAPVC.
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Saccular pseudoaneurysm of the left common carotid artery in an adolescent: Management with a covered stent p. 83
Laurent Van Camp, Werner Budts, Geert Maleux
An adolescent patient with a previous history of surgical repair for interrupted aortic arch type B presented with an asymptomatic, saccular pseudoaneurysm of the proximal, common left carotid artery, identified on a follow-up magnetic resonance angiography of the thoracic large vessels. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully excluded with a covered stent. Clinical and radiological follow-up after 2 years was uneventful.
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Transcatheter closure of postsurgical ruptured sinus of valsalva with amplatzer duct Occluder II AS™ device p. 86
Cristina Capogrosso, Giuseppe Santoro, Mario Giordano, Maria Giovanna Russo
Sinus of Valsalva (SV) rupture is a rare, cardiac complication after surgical repair of complex congenital heart disease. This paper reports a 4-year-old male child with double outlet right ventricle (RV) and pulmonary stenosis with superior-inferior arrangement of the ventricles, who was submitted to surgical repair using the “reparation a l'etage ventriculaire” procedure. A few months after an uneventful surgical repair, his clinical condition abruptly worsened because of the rupture of the right SV into the RV outflow tract resulting in large left-to-right shunt and RV functional impairment. To avoid surgical re-do, this late-onset complication was successfully treated by transcatheter implantation of an Amplatzer Duct Occluder Type II Additional Size™ (ADO-IIAS, St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA) device.
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Arterial duct and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: A shunt masking a shunt p. 89
Mario Giordano, Giuseppe Santoro, Maria Teresa Palladino, Maria Giovanna Russo
A 5-month-old infant, referred to our institution for percutaneous arterial duct (AD) embolization, showed multiple huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) associated with a small AD and several tiny systemic-to-pulmonary collaterals. This anatomic arrangement was a possible cause of lack of cyanosis and disproportionately higher hemodynamic relevance of the ductal shunt. The PAVMs became pathophysiologically evident immediately after the closure of AD and systemic to pulmonary artery collaterals and presented clinically with a life-threatening cyanosis. To improve the patient's clinical and hemodynamic condition, the PAVMs were closed in multiple sittings using a large number of Amplatzer Vascular Plugs (St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA). The hemodynamic burden of cardiac malformations resulting in left-to-right shunt may be magnified by the presence of PAVMs as a result of low pulmonary vascular resistance which in turn may completely mask the clinical impact of the latter. Transcatheter approach is life-saving in these complex arrangements.
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Discontinuity of the arch beyond the origin of the left subclavian artery in an adult: Interruption or coarctation? p. 92
Pradeep Vaideeswar, Supreet Marathe, Saranya Singaravel, Robert H Anderson
Congenital aortic anomalies are uncommon causes of secondary hypertension and are seldom suspected in the adult age group. We present a case of aortic interruption unexpectedly diagnosed on autopsy in a 38-year-old male who presented with cardiovascular collapse. Apart from interruption, a finding unique to our case was aneurysmal dilation of the proximal descending aorta just before the obstruction with thrombosis. We also attempt to review the literature for interrupted aortic arch in adults and clarify the nomenclature of interruption versus coarctation.
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Congenital aneurysm of both left ventricle and left atrium p. 97
Ryan F Halas, Christopher J Schmehil, Gary R Ten Eyck, James L Loker
This is a case of both congenital left ventricular (LV) free wall submitral aneurysm and left atrial appendage aneurysm with 6 years of clinical follow-up. Each lesion is a rare entity, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in medical literature of both lesions occurring in the same patient, raising the likelihood of a common etiology. The workup was initiated in the third trimester of fetal life with irregular heart rate and abnormal fetal ultrasound and echocardiogram at that time. The patient required emergent atrial appendage plication due to blood clot formation and suffered from multiple other complications including ventricular ectopy and surgically induced pseudoaneurysm. Follow-up interval echocardiograms have revealed continued good LV function with persistent LV aneurysm. In review of the case, there were several potential in utero causes including maternal viral upper respiratory infection and bacteriuria with exposure to amoxicillin. These as well as other considerations are discussed along with a brief review of these rare lesions, usual presentation, and known associations.
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Acquired ventricular septal defect due to infective endocarditis p. 100
Randi E Durden, Joseph W Turek, Benjamin E Reinking, Manish Bansal
Acquired intracardiac left-to-right shunts are rare occurrences. Chest trauma and myocardial infection are well-known causes of acquired ventricular septal defect (VSD). There have been several case reports describing left ventricle to right atrium shunt after infective endocarditis (IE). We present here a patient found to have an acquired VSD secondary to IE of the aortic and tricuspid valves in the setting of a known bicuspid aortic valve. This is the first case reported of acquired VSD in a pediatric patient in the setting of IE along with literature review of acquired left-to-right shunts.
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Coronary sinus atrial septal defect without persistent left superior vena cava: Three-dimensional imaging of a rare defect p. 103
Sean Del-Rossi Quadros, Sreeja Pavithran, Ravi Agrawal, Kothandam Sivakumar
Coronary sinus defects refer to interatrial communications that lie out of the confines of the atrial septum and leads from left to right shunt through the ostium of the coronary sinus. When associated with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC), mild systemic desaturation may occur depending on the extent of unroofing of the coronary sinus. Isolated defects without PLSVC are rare. Three-dimensional echocardiographic and surgical images are presented.
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Large pseudoaneurysm following right ventricle to pulmonary artery homograft placement in an infant p. 106
Rini Sahewalla, Robert D Ross, Ralph E Delius, Ryan Halas, Premchand Anne
Pseudoaneurysm (PSA) is a known but rare complication of the right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduits. The patient's clinical presentation can be variable ranging from asymptomatic to potential rupture. We describe an unusual case of a massive PSA in an infant who underwent RV-PA pulmonary homograft placement after relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
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Cost-effectiveness analysis of devices for closure of patent ductus arteriosus Highly accessed article p. 109
KM Krishnamoorthy, Arun Gopalakrishnan
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A pediatric echocardiographic Z-score nomogram for a developing country: Indian pediatric echocardiography study – The Z-score p. 109
Rajendra Kumar Gokhroo, Avinash Anantharaj, Devendra Bisht, Kamal Kishor, Nishad Plakkal, Nivedita Mondal
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Melody valve implantation through a recanalized occluded femoral vein Highly accessed article p. 111
Neil D Patel, Jennifer A Su, Cheryl M Takao, Frank F Ing
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The traveller amplatzer: Surgical removal after device migration to the ventricle p. 113
Mónica García Bouza, María Luz Polo López, Álvaro González Rocafort, Montserrat Bret Zurita
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Ominous comorbidities: Small ventricular septal defect and warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia p. 114
Elaheh Malakan Rad
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Improving outcomes in totally anomalous systemic venous connection p. 116
Sivasankaran Sivasubramonian, Arun Gopalakrishnan, Deepa Sasikumar, KM Krishnamoorthy
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