Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
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An evolving anesthetic protocol fosters fast tracking in pediatric cardiac surgery: A comparison of two anesthetic techniques


1 Department of Cardio-Thoracic Anaesthesia, Army Hospital Research and Referral, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Army Hospital Research and Referral, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Army Hospital Research and Referral, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Gaurav Kumar,
Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Army Hospital Research and Referral, New Delhi - 110 010
India
H Ravi Ramamurthy,
Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Army Hospital Research and Referral, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/apc.APC_36_19

Background : The past two decades have seen rapid development of new surgical techniques for repair as well as palliation of complex congenital heart diseases. For a better patient outcome, minimal postoperative ventilation remains one of the most important endpoints of an effectual perioperative management. Aims and Objectives : The aim of this randomized open-label trial was to compare postoperative extubation time and intensive care unit (ICU) stay when two different anesthetic regimens, comprising of induction with ketamine and low-dose fentanyl versus high-dose fentanyl, are used, in pediatric patients undergoing corrective/palliative surgery. Materials and Methods : Patients with congenital cardiac defects, under 14 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and epidural analgesia, were enrolled into two groups – Group K (ketamine with low-dose fentanyl) and Group F (high-dose fentanyl) – over a period of 10 months, starting from January 2018. The effect of both these drugs on postoperative extubation time and ICU stay was compared using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results : A total of 70 patients were assessed with equal distribution in both the groups. In Group K, 32 of 35 patients were extubated in the operation room, whereas extubation time in Group F was18.1 ± 11 h. Total ICU stay in Group K and Group F was 45.2 ± 30.1 and 60.1 ± 24.5 h, respectively (P = 0.02). Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in Group K. Conclusion : Ketamine along with low-dose fentanyl, when used for anesthetic induction, in comparison to high-dose fentanyl, reduces postoperative extubation time and ICU stay, in pediatric patients undergoing corrective/palliative surgery under CPB and epidural analgesia for congenital cardiac defects.


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    -  Sharma VK
    -  Kumar G
    -  Joshi S
    -  Tiwari N
    -  Kumar V
    -  Ramamurthy H R
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