Vasudha Meena1, Durga Shankar Meena2, Pradeep Singh Rathore1, Sandeep Chaudhary1, Jai Prakash Soni1
1 Department of Paediatric Medicine, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Dr. S. N. Medical College, MDM Hospital for Mother and Child, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Medicine, AIIMS, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
Introduction: In this prospective study, we compared the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen, indomethacin, and paracetamol in the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm neonates.
Materials and Methods: This randomized prospective study was conducted in the Division of Pediatric Cardiology, M. D. M and Umaid Hospital, Jodhpur. A total of 105 preterm neonates with gestational age <37 weeks and hemodynamically significant PDA (hs-PDA) diagnosed clinically and confirmed by echocardiography were enrolled. All neonates were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1:1 to oral indomethacin (Group A, 3 doses at an interval of 12 h with a starting dose of 0.2 mg/kg), oral ibuprofen (Group B, 10 mg/kg ibuprofen followed by 5 mg/kg/day for 2 days), or IV paracetamol (Group C, 15 mg/kg every 6 hourly for 3 consecutive days). After the completion of the first course, neonates were assessed clinically as well as by echocardiography to confirm PDA closure. If PDA remained open, the second course of the same drug was given and repeat assessment was done within 24 h of the last dose. In addition to an echocardiographic examination, complete blood counts, renal and liver function tests were performed.
Results: Our study shows that there was no significant difference observed in PDA closure among all the three treatment groups after the completion of two courses of treatment. The cumulative rate of PDA closure was 68% in the indomethacin group, 77.14% in the ibuprofen group, and 71.43% in the paracetamol group (P = 0.716). There were no significant changes found in Hb, platelet, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and liver enzymes after treatment in the paracetamol group (P > 0.05). BUN and serum creatinine levels were significantly increased after treatment in indomethacin and ibuprofen groups (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively).
Our study shows that IV paracetamol is as effective as indomethacin and ibuprofen in promoting the closure of hs-PDA in premature infants with a better safety profile.
Dr. Jai Prakash Soni
Shivam Hospital, Bhaskar Circle, Ratanada, Jodhpur - 342 011
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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