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Clinical score to detect congenital heart defects: Concept of second screening


Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shaad Abqari
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, PCE-CS Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/apc.APC_113_19

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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 281-288

 

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Introduction: Neonatal screening for congenital heart defects at birth can miss some heart defects, sometimes few critical ones, and the scenario is even worse in those neonates who had never undergone a neonatal checkup (home deliveries). Immunization clinic can serve as a unique opportunity as the second checkpoint for the screening of the children. A history- and examination-based test can serve as an effective tool to screen out children with heart defects. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical screening tool for the identification of congenital heart defects at the first visit of an infant after birth for immunization. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study which the consecutive children presenting at 6 weeks of age for immunization or any child presenting for the first time (outborn delivery) till 6 months of age in the immunization clinic were subjected to detailed history and examination and findings were recorded on a predesigned pro forma and a clinical score was calculated. All these children were then subjected to echocardiography for confirmation of the diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were recorded Observations and Results: A total of 970 babies were screened, out of them 31 were diagnosed with CHD and 18 had undergone neonatal screening at birth. A clinical score of 3 or more had more chances of detecting CHD. The sensitivity of the cutoff score as 3 was 96.77% and specificity was 98.72, with a positive predictive value of 71.43%, a negative predictive value of 99.89%, and an accuracy of 98.66%. Conclusions: The history- and examination-based tool is an effective method for early identification of CHD and can easily be used by peripheral workers working in remote places with poor resources enabling prompt referral.






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Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shaad Abqari
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, PCE-CS Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/apc.APC_113_19

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: Neonatal screening for congenital heart defects at birth can miss some heart defects, sometimes few critical ones, and the scenario is even worse in those neonates who had never undergone a neonatal checkup (home deliveries). Immunization clinic can serve as a unique opportunity as the second checkpoint for the screening of the children. A history- and examination-based test can serve as an effective tool to screen out children with heart defects. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical screening tool for the identification of congenital heart defects at the first visit of an infant after birth for immunization. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study which the consecutive children presenting at 6 weeks of age for immunization or any child presenting for the first time (outborn delivery) till 6 months of age in the immunization clinic were subjected to detailed history and examination and findings were recorded on a predesigned pro forma and a clinical score was calculated. All these children were then subjected to echocardiography for confirmation of the diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were recorded Observations and Results: A total of 970 babies were screened, out of them 31 were diagnosed with CHD and 18 had undergone neonatal screening at birth. A clinical score of 3 or more had more chances of detecting CHD. The sensitivity of the cutoff score as 3 was 96.77% and specificity was 98.72, with a positive predictive value of 71.43%, a negative predictive value of 99.89%, and an accuracy of 98.66%. Conclusions: The history- and examination-based tool is an effective method for early identification of CHD and can easily be used by peripheral workers working in remote places with poor resources enabling prompt referral.






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