Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
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Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in children after the Kawashima procedure: Risk factors and midterm outcome


1 Department of Cardiac Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Cardiac Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center; College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Cardiac Sciences, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs; College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Fahad Alhabshan,
Associate Professor, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Heath Sciences, Pediatric Cardiology Consultant, King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/apc.APC_144_19

Background : Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are the major cause of progressive cyanosis in patients palliated with bidirectional cavopulmonary connection (BCPC). The aim of our study is to analyze the occurrence of PAVMs in patients after Kawashima procedure, to study the effect of total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) on PAVMs, to evaluate the effect of axillary arteriovenous fistula (AAVF) creation on PAVMs, and to study the risk factors for PAVMs. Methods : In this retrospective cohort study, all patients with left isomerism and azygous continuation of an interrupted inferior vena cava who underwent Kawashima procedure from July 2001 to December 2017 were included. Results : Twenty.six patients after Kawashima procedure were included in our study. PAVMs were diagnosed in 12 patients (46%). Five of these 12 patients underwent TCPC with complete resolution of hypoxemia. Three patients underwent AAVF creation, 2 had complete resolution, while 1 had partial resolution of hypoxemia. Fourteen patients (54%) did not develop PAVMs. Nakata index below 267 mm2/m2 and McGoon ratio below 1.9 predicted the development of PAVMs with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions : PAVMs represent a serious complication in patients who undergo Kawashima procedure. Small size of pulmonary arteries is an important risk factor for the development of PAVMs. Resolution of hypoxemia after TCPC completion supports the hepatic factor hypothesis. Early TCPC completion in these patients may help to avoid the development of PAVMs by restoring the hepatic factor. Resolution of hypoxemia after AAVF creation may support the lack of pulsatile flow hypothesis.


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    -  Alibrahim IJ
    -  Mohammed MH
    -  Kabbani MS
    -  Jijeh AM
    -  Tamimi OR
    -  Alghamdi AA
    -  Alhabshan F
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